In the cities of Klagenfurt, Lienz and Bruneck the limit values of 50g/m3 for particulate matter (PM10), according to Directive1999/39/EG (to be complied with after 1.1.2005) are currently exceeded on more than 35 days during just one winter half-year. The primary air pollutants are caused by exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from local traffic, whereas the latter takes a share of more than 22 % in the total sources apportionment near hot spots.
Due to improved engine technology and the increased use of particle absorbing systems (EURO 5/6), particle emissions by re-suspension is of mounting importance.
Thus, the project objectives are:
1) to develop and demonstrate an innovative measure for the reduction of re-suspension by using liquid CMA as dust-binder on roads in air polluted zones
under different meteorological conditions and adapted in such a way that CMA can be used in a large-scale after the completion of this project not only in the involved cities but also in other municipalities throughout Europe.
Thereby it is essential to get rid of obstacles concerning traffic safety. If it turns out that friction is reduced because of CMA-treatment on the roads under certain circumstances, conditions and measures to compensate the situation will be defined and implemented.
2) to develop additionally a new method for dust-binding in unpaved areas (eg. Construction sites).
3) to implement liquid CMA both as dust-binder and environmental friendly de-icing agent within air polluted zones as alternative to salts (chlorides).
4) to provide an instruction manual for other cities and municipalities in Europe to use liquid CMA efficiently for their purposes.
5) to inform the public and stake-holders continuously on the progress of the project.
6) to evaluate the CMA-measures by a cost-benefit-analysis in comparison to other abatement strategies and by life-cycle-analysis in comparison to chlorides.
7) to contribute more precise emission factors for re-suspension of particles from roads and construction sites.
During project life-time, a measurable reduction of the pollution shall be achieved, not only for PM10, but also for PM 2,5.
For PM 10 a reduction of 10% is expected based on the annual mean.
Actions and means involved:
The project needs tests and experiments in laboratories to find out the adequate range of dosage concerning dust-binding, de-icing and friction characteristics. The lab tests are used to improve the product CMA itself and to determine emission factors for abrasion.
First results in the labs have to be implemented in the field under different weather and meteorological conditions to give feedback and define the requirements for further lab tests. The permanent interaction between lab and field results in step by step extension of the test areas. The 3 cities Klagenfurt, Bruneck and Lienz are located in the South of the Alps but represent quite different meteorological conditions. They have to provide test areas and are in charge of application of liquid CMA. The field tests are evaluated by a comprehensive network of air quality monitoring stations in all 3 cities involved. Tunnel measurements enable a quick feedback to lab experiments and determination of emission factors in the field without influence of wind and precipitation. Both are needed to define a trigger for the exact time of CMA-application in dependence of weather forecasting. For all air quality measurements and the determination of emission factors the Technical University Graz is the competent scientific partner.
During winter period the cities will use CMA not only as dust-binder but also as de-icing agent.
At unpaved areas (construction sites, unpaved roads, gravel mining) liquid CMA will be used in the cities for dust-binding. This measure will take place mainly during summer to avoid overloading use of resources (monitoring devices, human resources, gritter lorry).
The investigations concerning traffic safety are carried out at first in the laboratory (subcontracted institute of tribology) and further on in the field (friction tests in driving technique centre and test areas in the cities). Public opinion polls, clarification of juridical aspects (liability of road administration) and analysis of driving behaviour will complete this issue. The know-how concerning traffic safety mainly comes from Austrian automobile association and NGO for traffic safety, who are both subcontracted and expected to deliver recommendations to improve the traffic safety, if needed.
Chemson is the producer of liquid CMA and is requested to instruct the cities, how to use and apply CMA. For this reason and for testing product improvements the co-operation with the Swedish VTI is needed, who is the only institute in Europe operating a road simulator concerning the determination of PM10-emissions factors.
In order to encourage and enable other cities and municipalities to use CMA an instruction manual is prepared, including practical information as the result of the field tests in the cities Klagenfurt, Bruneck, Lienz.
Permanent information of the public and stake-holders by media work, brochures, info-days and round tables is an important issue in all 3 cities to raise acceptance and avoid obstacles.
Dissemination of project results (website, conferences, excursions, laymans report) will not only motivate other municipalities to use CMA as well but also built up a platform to share experiences.
Expected results (quantified as far as possible):
Currently, liquid CMA is supposed to be the only abatement strategy against PM10 and to a certain amount PM2,5 with such a high reduction potential and immediate effect on local level.
A measurable reduction of the PM10-levels up to 10% in the involved cities within the test areas is achievable. In Lienz and Bruneck the legal PM10-targets will be met by the project activities.
By using liquid CMA on construction sites and unpaved roads the dust-emissions are supposed to be reduced by 50%.
An instruction manual will enable other cities and municipalities
- to reduce efficiently their PM-levels up to 10% by using CMA as dust-binder
- to implement an environment friendly alternative for winter services by using CMA instead of salt
- to use an innovative method for dust-binding at construction sites
Relevant and new emission factors for re-suspended particles on various types of roads and for construction sites will be calculated.
The cost-benefit-evaluation and life-cycle-analysis of CMA-usage will facilitate the decision for other cities and municipalities to implement the CMA-application.
The public will be informed regarding particulate matter, effects, causes and measures.
The website will be continued after end of project.