In the cities of Klagenfurt, Lienz and Bruneck the limit values of 50g/m3 for particulate matter (PM10), according to Directive1999/39/EG (to be complied with after 1.1.2005) are currently exceeded on more than 35 days during just one winter half-year. The primary air pollutants are caused by exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from local traffic, whereas the latter takes a share of more than 22 % in the total sources apportionment near hot spots.
Due to improved engine technology and the increased use of particle absorbing systems (EURO 5/6), particle emissions by re-suspension is of mounting importance.
Thus, the project objectives are:
1) to develop and demonstrate an innovative measure for the reduction of re-suspension by using liquid CMA as dust-binder on roads in air polluted zones
under different meteorological conditions and adapted in such a way that CMA can be used in a large-scale after the completion of this project not only in the involved cities but also in other municipalities throughout Europe.
Thereby it is essential to get rid of obstacles concerning traffic safety. If it turns out that friction is reduced because of CMA-treatment on the roads under certain circumstances, conditions and measures to compensate the situation will be defined and implemented.
2) to develop additionally a new method for dust-binding in unpaved areas (eg. Construction sites).
3) to implement liquid CMA both as dust-binder and environmental friendly de-icing agent within air polluted zones as alternative to salts (chlorides).
4) to provide an instruction manual for other cities and municipalities in Europe to use liquid CMA efficiently for their purposes.
5) to inform the public and stake-holders continuously on the progress of the project.
6) to evaluate the CMA-measures by a cost-benefit-analysis in comparison to other abatement strategies and by life-cycle-analysis in comparison to chlorides.
7) to contribute more precise emission factors for re-suspension of particles from roads and construction sites.
During project life-time, a measurable reduction of the pollution shall be achieved, not only for PM10, but also for PM 2,5.
For PM 10 a reduction of 10% is expected based on the annual mean.
Actions and means involved:
The project needs tests and experiments in laboratories to find out the adequate range of dosage concerning dust-binding, de-icing and friction characteristics. The lab tests are used to improve the product CMA itself and to determine emission factors for abrasion.
First results in the labs have to be implemented in the field under different weather and meteorological conditions to give feedback and define the requirements for further lab tests. The permanent interaction between lab and field results in step by step extension of the test areas. The 3 cities Klagenfurt, Bruneck and Lienz are located in the South of the Alps but represent quite different meteorological conditions. They have to provide test areas and are in charge of application of liquid CMA.