Unknown input observer design for linear time-invariant multivariable systems based on a new observer normal form

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In various applications in the field of control engineering, the estimation of the state variables of dynamic systems in the presence of unknown inputs plays an important role. Existing methods require the so-called observer matching condition to be satisfied, rely on the boundedness e variables or exhibit an increased observer order of at least twice the plant order. In this article, a novel observer normal form for strongly observable linear time-invariant multivariable systems is proposed. In contrast to classical normal forms, the proposed approach also takes the unknown inputs into account. The proposed observer normal form allows for the straightforward construction of a higher-order sliding mode observer, which ensures global convergence of the estimation error within finite time even in the presence of unknown bounded inputs. Its application is not restricted to systems which satisfy the aforementioned limitations of already existing unknown input observers. The proposed approach can be exploited for the reconstruction of unknown inputs with bounded derivative and robust state-feedback control, which is shown by means of a tutorial example. Numerical simulations confirm the effectiveness of the presented work.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2180-2206
Number of pages27
JournalInternational Journal of Systems Science
Issue number10
Early online date6 Apr 2022
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • multivariable systems
  • normal forms
  • robust state estimation
  • sliding mode observation
  • unknown input observer
  • Multivariable systems

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications


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