Towards a wastewater energy recovery system: The utilization of humidified ammonia by a solid oxide fuel cell stack

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

This study presents the results of investigations on performance and durability of an ammonia-supplied MK352 solid oxide fuel cell stack with electrolyte supported cells and chromium based interconnects. The performance evaluation revealed no significant differences between ammonia and equivalent hydrogen/nitrogen gases as fuel, which was a result of the excellent ammonia conversion rates up to 99.99%. When using high ammonia flow rates, temperature measurements inside the stack revealed a temperature drop due to the endothermic ammonia decomposition of up to 18.8 K, which proceeded preferentially at the fuel inlet region. An 1000 h durability test with humidified ammonia in 80% fuel utilization condition was performed, which resulted in a stack performance degradation rate of about 1.1%/1000 h. Tests with hydrogen/nitrogen fueled reference stacks revealed similar degradation rates during the initial 1000 h. Post-mortem analyses by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed no significant micro-structural deterioration of the functional layers of the anode, but nitriding effects on the nickel contact meshes and chromium nitrides were found in the material structure of the interconnects. Also, an oxide layer was found between interconnect and contact meshes at the anode, which appears to be the main cause of the performance degradation.
Original languageEnglish
Article number227608
JournalJournal of power sources
Volume450
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2020

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solid oxide fuel cells
Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC)
Ammonia
ammonia
Wastewater
recovery
Recovery
Chromium
degradation
durability
Degradation
energy
mesh
Hydrogen
chromium
Anodes
Durability
anodes
Nitrogen
nitrogen

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Towards a wastewater energy recovery system: The utilization of humidified ammonia by a solid oxide fuel cell stack. / Stöckl, Bernhard; Preininger, Michael; Subotić, Vanja; Megel, Stefan; Folgner, Christoph; Hochenauer, Christoph.

In: Journal of power sources, Vol. 450, 227608, 02.2020.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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abstract = "This study presents the results of investigations on performance and durability of an ammonia-supplied MK352 solid oxide fuel cell stack with electrolyte supported cells and chromium based interconnects. The performance evaluation revealed no significant differences between ammonia and equivalent hydrogen/nitrogen gases as fuel, which was a result of the excellent ammonia conversion rates up to 99.99{\%}. When using high ammonia flow rates, temperature measurements inside the stack revealed a temperature drop due to the endothermic ammonia decomposition of up to 18.8 K, which proceeded preferentially at the fuel inlet region. An 1000 h durability test with humidified ammonia in 80{\%} fuel utilization condition was performed, which resulted in a stack performance degradation rate of about 1.1{\%}/1000 h. Tests with hydrogen/nitrogen fueled reference stacks revealed similar degradation rates during the initial 1000 h. Post-mortem analyses by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed no significant micro-structural deterioration of the functional layers of the anode, but nitriding effects on the nickel contact meshes and chromium nitrides were found in the material structure of the interconnects. Also, an oxide layer was found between interconnect and contact meshes at the anode, which appears to be the main cause of the performance degradation.",
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AU - Folgner, Christoph

AU - Hochenauer, Christoph

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AB - This study presents the results of investigations on performance and durability of an ammonia-supplied MK352 solid oxide fuel cell stack with electrolyte supported cells and chromium based interconnects. The performance evaluation revealed no significant differences between ammonia and equivalent hydrogen/nitrogen gases as fuel, which was a result of the excellent ammonia conversion rates up to 99.99%. When using high ammonia flow rates, temperature measurements inside the stack revealed a temperature drop due to the endothermic ammonia decomposition of up to 18.8 K, which proceeded preferentially at the fuel inlet region. An 1000 h durability test with humidified ammonia in 80% fuel utilization condition was performed, which resulted in a stack performance degradation rate of about 1.1%/1000 h. Tests with hydrogen/nitrogen fueled reference stacks revealed similar degradation rates during the initial 1000 h. Post-mortem analyses by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed no significant micro-structural deterioration of the functional layers of the anode, but nitriding effects on the nickel contact meshes and chromium nitrides were found in the material structure of the interconnects. Also, an oxide layer was found between interconnect and contact meshes at the anode, which appears to be the main cause of the performance degradation.

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