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This paper introduces a finite element (FE) approach to determine tire deformation and its effect on open-wheeled race car aerodynamics at high vehicle velocities. In recent literature tire deformation was measured optically. Combined loads like accelerating at corner exit are difficult to reproduce in wind tunnels and require several optical devices to measure the tire deformation. In contrast, an FE approach is capable of determining the tire deformation in combined load states accurately. Additionally, the temperature influence on tire deformation is investigated. The FE tire model was validated using 3D scan measurements, stiffness measurements in vertical, lateral and longitudinal direction and the change of loaded radius with speed at different loads respectively. The deformed shape of the tire of the FE model was used in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The influence of these tire deformations was investigated in a CFD study using a full vehicle model. The CFD model was validated through vehicle dynamics model. Finally, three maneuvers characteristic for race cars were simulated. A straight-line braking, end of straight driving and a high-speed cornering maneuver based on a vehicle dynamics simulation were simulated using this combined approach of FE and CFD. The tire deformation included proper wheel load, car speed, wheel speed, camber angle and slip angle for each wheel. The CFD full vehicle model took chassis slip angle, body roll angle and wheel steering angle into account in order to match the real driving situation. The results show that realistic tire deformations provide better insight into the effect of rotating wheels on aerodynamics of full vehicles, especially the flow region behind the tires of race cars.
|Journal||SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH|
|Publication status||Submitted - 2020|
Fields of Expertise
- Mobility & Production