Sweat analysis with a wearable sensing platform based on laser-induced graphene

F. Vivaldi*, A. Dallinger, N. Poma, A. Bonini, D. Biagini, P. Salvo, F. Borghi, A. Tavanti, F. Greco, F. Di Francesco

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The scientific community has shown increasing interest in laser scribing for the direct fabrication of conductive graphene-based tracks on different substrates. This can enable novel routes for the noninvasive analysis of biofluids (such as sweat or other noninvasive matrices), whose results can provide the rapid evaluation of a person's health status. Here, we present a wearable sensing platform based on laser induced graphene (LIG) porous electrodes scribed on a flexible polyimide sheet, which samples sweat through a paper sampler. The device is fully laser manufactured and features a two layer design with LIG-based vertical interconnect accesses. A detailed characterization of the LIG electrodes including pore size, surface groups, surface area in comparison to electroactive surface area, and the reduction behavior of different LIG types was performed. The bare LIG electrodes can detect the electrochemical oxidation of both uric acid and tyrosine. Further modification of the surface of the LIG working electrode with an indoaniline derivative [4-((4-aminophenyl)imino)-2,6-dimethoxycyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-one] enables the voltammetric measurement of pH with an almost ideal sensitivity and without interference from other analytes. Finally, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to measure the concentrations of ions through the analysis of the sweat impedance. The device was successfully tested in a real case scenario, worn on the skin during a sports session. In vitro tests proved the non-cytotoxic effect of the device on the A549 cell line.

Original languageEnglish
Article number036104
JournalAPL Bioengineering
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Biophysics
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering


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