The proposed method can be seen as an adaption of the ”Seeber“ concept considering developments in geomechanics, calculation methods and steel technology over the last decades. When exposed to inner pressure, the cracking condition is transgressed and steel linings will not protect the rock mass against cracking. Accordingly, the post-failure behaviour of the rock mass is an essential basis for structural design. The effects of crack water pressure on radial displacements and the width of gaps are considered. The resistant behaviour of the rock mass is determined by its minor primary principal stress. Under mountain ridges and slopes, there is no correlation between the minor stresses and the height of overburden. Obviously damage cases in concrete lined tunnels are the result of inappropriate assessment of principal stresses. A better approach is proposed based on fundamental considerations and FE calculations. Crack water pressure close to the level of the minimal principal stress will induce progressive hydraulic fracturing in the rock mass, which requires safe waterproofing sealing of the shaft. Grouting the coaxial gap in rock mass is a firm part of any design concept. In shafts sealed by membranes, the capability to bridge fissures must be proved by tests. In steel lined shafts, the usable passive resistance of rock mass is determined by the acceptable radial displacement.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Civil and Structural Engineering
- Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology