Short-wavelength four wave mixing experiments using single and two-color schemes at FERMI

F. Bencivenga*, F. Capotondi, L. Foglia, A. Gessini, G. Kurdi, I. Lopez-Quintas, C. Masciovecchio, M. Kiskinova, R. Mincigrucci, D. Naumenko, I. Nikolov, E. Pedersoli, A. Simoncig

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The development of ultra-bright extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and X-ray free electron laser (FEL) sources has enabled the extension of wave-mixing approaches into the short wavelength regime. Such a class of experiments relies upon nonlinear interactions among multiple light pulses offering a unique tool for exploring the dynamics of ultrafast processes and correlations between selected excitations at relevant length and time scales adding elemental and site selectivity as well. Besides the availability of a suitable photon source, the implementation of wave mixing methodology requires efforts in developing the instrumental set-up. We have realized at the FERMI FEL two dedicated set-ups to handle multiple FEL beams with preselected parameters in a non-collinear fashion and control their interaction sequence at the target. These unique apparatuses, combined with the exceptional characteristics of the seeded FERMI FEL, have allowed us to make the first steps into this field and further advances are foreseen in the near future.

Original languageEnglish
Article number146901
JournalJournal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 1 Jan 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Four wave mixing
  • Free electron lasers
  • Transient grating
  • X-rays

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Radiation
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Spectroscopy
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry


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