Robust shape-based matching control of robotic conductive charging systems for electric vehicles

Bernhard Walzel*, Mario Hirz, Helmut Brunner

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The increasing popularity of electric vehicles (EVs) and autonomous driving is calling for innovative user-centric and comfortable solutions for battery charging. Automated charging with standard connector technologies has the potential for offering high charging power by minimal EV-and infrastructure attachments as well as comfortable and safe charging processes. For realizing automated conductive (cable-based) charging via standard charging connectors and inlets, one challenge lies in the accurate position determination of the EV charging inlet, while interoperability and cost targets require to refrain from any vehicle adaptions or modifications to support the detection process. The present work introduces an accurate, robust and cost-efficient sensor system approach enabling both EV type detection and classification as well as the subsequent charging inlet position determination, based on 2D-cameras in combination with shape-based 3D-matching procedures. The system enables a robust inlet position determination of different vehicle types in various parking positions, while no adaptations on the vehicles are necessary. In this context, the paper provides insights into the sensor system development and highlights requirements on charging inlet detection, the recognition process of an Automated Conductive Charging System (ACCS) prototype as well as the evaluation of the introduced sensor system by experimental studies. The results of the presented work demonstrate the possibilities of charging electric vehicles autonomously by conductive charging standards.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)612-623
Number of pages12
JournalComputer-Aided Design and Applications
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • CAD shape models
  • Electric vehicle charging
  • Robotics
  • Shape-based 3D-matching

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computational Mechanics
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
  • Computational Mathematics


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