The recent review for the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (RoHS) by the expert committee, appointed by the European Union, stated that the replacement of PZT “… may be scientifically and technologically practical to a certain degree …” although replacement “… is scientifically and technically still impractical in the majority of applications.” Thus, two decades of sustained research and development may be approaching fruition, at first limited to a minority of applications. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to assess the viability of lead-free piezoceramics over a broad range of application-relevant properties. These are identified and discussed in turn: 1. Cost, 2. Reproducibility, 3. Mechanical and Thermal Properties, 4. Electrical Conductivity, and 5. Lifetime. It is suggested that the worldwide efforts into the development of lead-free piezoceramics now require a broader perspective to bring the work to the next stage of development by supporting implementation into real devices. Guidelines about pertinent research requirements into a wide range of secondary properties, measurement techniques, and salient literature are provided.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Metals and Alloys