In this simulator study, we evaluated the benefits and limitations of a collision warning system for flight according to visual flight rules (VFR). Pilots were confronted with single and multiple traffic, visible both on a moving map display and on the visual system of a simulator. The results demonstrate the benefits of the collision warning system in identifying traffic. However, the avoidance maneuvers initiated by the pilots did not always conform to the regulations. Under multiple traffic conditions, the pilots exhibited slower reaction times when confronted with the traffic warning. They also reported higher levels of workload and reduced situational awareness in comparison to the conditions of single traffic. Using the pilots' feedback, we identified technical requirements for the future development of collision avoidance systems for the VFR.
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