Methods for the measurement of ferrite content in multipass duplex stainless steel welds

A. Putz, M. Althuber, A. Zelić, E. M. Westin, T. Willidal, N. Enzinger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

The phase balance is commonly determined as a part of the duplex stainless steel (DSS) welding procedure qualification. In this work, the aim was to find a reliable, but still fast method to measure the ferrite content of DSS welds. Four methods were compared: image analysis with light optical metallography, magnetic measurements with Feritscope and Magne-Gage, and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Image analysis with a magnification of ×500 was concluded to be most accurate on condition that the image quality was sufficiently high. The best contrast for image analysis was achieved by covering all surfaces apart from the part of interest with adhesive tape and etching the sample in a modified Beraha II solution. The Feritscope systematically underestimated the average ferrite volume fraction compared with image analysis, and a correction factor of 1.1 is suggested. Magne-Gage in turn resulted in considerably higher ferrite numbers as compared with the Feritscope and would require a correction factor of 1.18. Besides the long duration of XRD measurements, the method proved unsuitable for ferrite measurement due to the coarse texture of the microstructure.

LanguageEnglish
Pages1075-1086
Number of pages12
JournalWelding in the world
Volume63
Issue number4
DOIs
StatusPublished - 1 Jun 2019

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Stainless Steel
Image analysis
Ferrite
Welds
Stainless steel
X ray diffraction analysis
Gages
Metallography
Magnetic variables measurement
Tapes
Image quality
Etching
Volume fraction
Adhesives
Welding
Textures
Microstructure

Keywords

  • Duplex stainless steel
  • Feritscope
  • Ferrite content
  • Ferrite measurement
  • Image analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys

Fields of Expertise

  • Mobility & Production

Cite this

Methods for the measurement of ferrite content in multipass duplex stainless steel welds. / Putz, A.; Althuber, M.; Zelić, A.; Westin, E. M.; Willidal, T.; Enzinger, N.

In: Welding in the world, Vol. 63, No. 4, 01.06.2019, p. 1075-1086.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Putz, A. ; Althuber, M. ; Zelić, A. ; Westin, E. M. ; Willidal, T. ; Enzinger, N. / Methods for the measurement of ferrite content in multipass duplex stainless steel welds. In: Welding in the world. 2019 ; Vol. 63, No. 4. pp. 1075-1086.
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