Abstract

On the path to a low-carbon future, advancements in energy storage seem to be achieved on a nearly daily basis. However, for the use-case of sustainable transportation, only a handful of technologies can be considered, as these technologies must be reliable, economical, and suitable for transportation applications. This paper describes the characteristics and aging process of two well-establishedandcommerciallyavailabletechnologies,namelyLithium-Ionbatteriesandsupercaps, andonelessknownsystem,flywheelenergystorage,inthecontextofpublictransitbuses. Beyondthe obvioususe-caseofonboardenergystorage,stationarybufferstorageinsidetherequiredfast-charging stationsfortheelectricvehiclesisalsodiscussed. Calculationsandconsiderationsarebasedonactual zero-emissionbusesoperatinginGraz,Austria. Themaininfluencingparametersandeffectsrelated to energy storage aging are analyzed in detail. Based on the discussed aging behavior, advantages, disadvantages, and a techno-economic analysis for both use-cases is presented. A final suitability assessmentofeachenergystoragetechnologyconcludestheuse-caseanalysis
Original languageEnglish
Article number6731
Number of pages21
JournalSustainability
Volume11
Issue number23
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 27 Nov 2019

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