In situ single-shot diffractive fluence mapping for X-ray free-electron laser pulses

Michael Schneider*, Christian M. Günther, Bastian Pfau, Flavio Capotondi, Michele Manfredda, Marco Zangrando, Nicola Mahne, Lorenzo Raimondi, Emanuele Pedersoli, Denys Naumenko, Stefan Eisebitt

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Free-electron lasers (FELs) in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) and X-ray regime opened up the possibility for experiments at high power densities, in particular allowing for fluence-dependent absorption and scattering experiments to reveal non-linear light-matter interactions at ever shorter wavelengths. Findings of such non-linear effects are met with tremendous interest, but prove difficult to understand and model due to the inherent shot-to-shot fluctuations in photon intensity and the often structured, non-Gaussian spatial intensity profile of a focused FEL beam. Presently, the focused beam is characterized and optimized separately from the actual experiment. Here, we present the simultaneous measurement of XUV diffraction signals from solid samples in tandem with the corresponding single-shot spatial fluence distribution on the actual sample. Our in situ characterization scheme enables direct monitoring of the sample illumination, providing a basis to optimize and quantitatively understand FEL experiments.

Original languageEnglish
Article number214
JournalNature Communications
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2018
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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