Implications of Low Substrate Temperatures on Growth Dynamics during 3D Nanoprinting via Electrons

Jakob Wilhelm Hinum-Wagner, Robert Winkler, David Kuhness, Gerhard Birnstingl, Gerald Kothleitner, Harald Plank

Research output: Contribution to conferenceAbstract


As the need for reliable 3D-printing at the nanoscale is rapidly increasing, appropriate methods have to be developed to push their capabilities beyond former limitations. In the small pool of capable techniques, Focused Electron Beam Induced Deposition (FEBID) is a promising candidate, as it enables the mask-less, direct-write fabrication of freestanding 3D nano-architectures with a high flexibility concerning design, material and functionality. This technology relies on the local decomposition of surface adsorbed precursor molecules by a focused electron beam. The local precursor coverages crucially determine incremental growth rates and thus predictability, precision and reliability. Recently, it was found that local heating by the electron beam itself can impact the precursors residence time at the growth front, which changes the effective coverage up to a point, where further growth becomes unstable [1]. Based on those insights, we here turn around the situation and lower the substrate temperature to study the implications on growth stability and fabrication precision. We use 3D multi-pod designs and study growth dynamics (growth rates), morphological peculiarities (structural dimensions, branch bending), for a temperature range of 5 °C to 30 °C. In a second step, we vary the leg numbers of the multi-pods and demonstrate the implications on growth rates. We found a boost in vertical growth up to a factor of 2.4- and 5.6-times higher vertical and volume growth rates for 5 °C compared to 25 °C. Results also show temperature-independent wire curvatures, and that the shape fidelity of multipod architectures is maintained at substrate temperatures down to 5 °C. However the growth history plays an important role during fabrication at different temperatures, which is demonstrated by the investigation of the growth behaviour of single pillars atop the multipod structures. These findings demonstrate the applicability of this low substrate temperatures approach for 3D-FEBID, leading to reduced process times without further drawbacks.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Event11th ASEM Workshop - via Zoom, Linz, Austria
Duration: 20 May 202121 May 2021


Conference11th ASEM Workshop
Abbreviated title11th ASEM Workshop
Internet address

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science

Fields of Expertise

  • Advanced Materials Science

Treatment code (Nähere Zuordnung)

  • Basic - Fundamental (Grundlagenforschung)

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