Impedance matched electrical capacitance tomography system: front-end design and system analysis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is a well-established technique for process monitoring, which enables the visualization of spatial material distributions within a region of interest, e.g. a pipeline. Switched capacitor (SC) circuits or continuous displacement current measurements are used to measure the coupling capacitances within the ECT sensor. In order to measure the coupling capacitances with high accuracy, the circuit concepts make use of fast excitation signals, e.g. fast transients in SC circuits or high excitation frequency signals in continuous displacement current measurements. For industrial process tomography in harsh environments a spatial separation between the sensor and the front-end circuitry is favorable. Consequently, the measurement circuitry and the sensor are connected by means of coaxial cables. For high excitation frequencies, transmission line effects like standing waves, reflections, or impedance transformation effects appear, leading to undefined signal conditions in the measurement system. It can be shown that the undefined signal propagation can lead to significant measurement errors. In this paper we present an impedance matched front-end circuitry, i.e. the source impedance of the excitation source and the input impedance of the measurement circuitry are matched to the wave impedance of the transmission lines. Due to the matching the signal propagation becomes defined, allowing the use of arbitrary cable lengths and excitation signals. We present the design of an impedance matched front-end for ECT and study the behavior of the excitation system and the measurement system. Comparative measurements from a demonstrator are presented. Finally we study the measurement error of the system and show the validity of the impedance matched system approach.
Original languageEnglish
Article number104002
Number of pages12
JournalMeasurement science & technology
Volume30
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 12 Aug 2019

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Electrical Capacitance Tomography
design analysis
systems analysis
Systems Analysis
Impedance
Tomography
Capacitance
tomography
capacitance
Systems analysis
impedance
Excitation
Displacement measurement
Electric current measurement
Measurement errors
Networks (circuits)
Electric lines
Sensors
Capacitors
Transmission Line

Keywords

  • Electrical Capacitance Tomography
  • Transmission Lines
  • Radio Frequency Measurement
  • Impedance Matched Design

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

Impedance matched electrical capacitance tomography system: front-end design and system analysis. / Flatscher, Matthias; Neumayer, Markus; Bretterklieber, Thomas.

In: Measurement science & technology, Vol. 30, No. 10, 104002, 12.08.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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AB - Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is a well-established technique for process monitoring, which enables the visualization of spatial material distributions within a region of interest, e.g. a pipeline. Switched capacitor (SC) circuits or continuous displacement current measurements are used to measure the coupling capacitances within the ECT sensor. In order to measure the coupling capacitances with high accuracy, the circuit concepts make use of fast excitation signals, e.g. fast transients in SC circuits or high excitation frequency signals in continuous displacement current measurements. For industrial process tomography in harsh environments a spatial separation between the sensor and the front-end circuitry is favorable. Consequently, the measurement circuitry and the sensor are connected by means of coaxial cables. For high excitation frequencies, transmission line effects like standing waves, reflections, or impedance transformation effects appear, leading to undefined signal conditions in the measurement system. It can be shown that the undefined signal propagation can lead to significant measurement errors. In this paper we present an impedance matched front-end circuitry, i.e. the source impedance of the excitation source and the input impedance of the measurement circuitry are matched to the wave impedance of the transmission lines. Due to the matching the signal propagation becomes defined, allowing the use of arbitrary cable lengths and excitation signals. We present the design of an impedance matched front-end for ECT and study the behavior of the excitation system and the measurement system. Comparative measurements from a demonstrator are presented. Finally we study the measurement error of the system and show the validity of the impedance matched system approach.

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