Grain Growth Prediction of SS316L Stainless Steel of Bead-On-Plate Using Numerical Computation

Muhd Faiz Mat, Yupiter H.P. Manurung*, Norasiah Muhammad, Siti Nursyahirah Ahmad, Mohd Shahriman Adenan, Martin Leitner

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference paperpeer-review


In this study, the austenitic grain size in bead-on-plate heat-affected zone (HAZ) are predicted as grain size has been widely known as an important factor affecting the deformation mechanism of materials, its microstructures and mechanical properties. At the first stage, a numerical model of bead-on-plate process using Goldak’s double ellipsoid heat source model is used to assess the temperature distribution during and after welding of austenitic stainless steel SS316L filler wire and plate. The numerical computation is conducted based on temperature-dependant materials properties using commercial FEM software MSC Marc/Mentat with user subroutine. Further, a numerical model is developed by using ordinary differential equation (ODE) for calculating the free grain growth algorithm combined with the presence of growing precipitates. The initial grain size (D0) value was obtained from optical microscopy observation while other values such as modified kinetic constant (M0) and activation energy (Qa) are defined through experimental investigation with various temperature ranges and holding times. It can be concluded that the austenite grain growth prediction algorithm during the bead-on-plate welding thermal cycle was successfully executed. As the outcome, grain sizes were predicted and compared with experimental investigation.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationRecent Trends in Manufacturing and Materials Towards Industry 4.0 - Selected Articles from iM3F 2020, Malaysia
EditorsMuhammed Nafis Osman Zahid, Amiril Sahab Abdul Sani, Mohamad Rusydi Mohamad Yasin, Zulhelmi Ismail, Nurul Akmal Che Lah, Faiz Mohd Turan
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Number of pages11
ISBN (Print)9789811595042
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes
Event2020 Innovative Manufacturing, Mechatronics and Materials Forum: iM3F 2020 - Virtuell, Malaysia
Duration: 6 Aug 20206 Aug 2020

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering
ISSN (Print)2195-4356
ISSN (Electronic)2195-4364


Conference2020 Innovative Manufacturing, Mechatronics and Materials Forum
Abbreviated titleiM3F 2020


  • Austenitic stainless steel
  • Bead-on-plate
  • Grain growth
  • ss316l

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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