The present work investigates the correlation between energy efficiency and global mechanical performance of hybrid aluminum alloy AA2024 (polyetherimide joints), produced by force-controlled friction riveting. The combinations of parameters followed a central composite design of experiments. Joint formation was correlated with mechanical performance via a volumetric ratio (0.28⁻0.66 a.u.), with a proposed improvement yielding higher accuracy. Global mechanical performance and ultimate tensile force varied considerably across the range of parameters (1096⁻9668 N). An energy efficiency threshold was established at 90 J, until which, energy input displayed good linear correlations with volumetric ratio and mechanical performance (R-sq of 0.87 and 0.86, respectively). Additional energy did not significantly contribute toward increasing mechanical performance. Friction parameters (i.e., force and time) displayed the most significant contributions to mechanical performance (32.0% and 21.4%, respectively), given their effects on heat development. For the investigated ranges, forging parameters did not have a significant contribution. A correlation between friction parameters was established to maximize mechanical response while minimizing energy usage. The knowledge from Parts I and II of this investigation allows the production of friction riveted connections in an energy efficient manner and control optimization approach, introduced for the first time in friction riveting.
- friction; riveting; hybrid structures; joining; response surface
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Materials Science(all)
Fields of Expertise
- Advanced Materials Science
Pina Cipriano, G. F., Blaga, L. A., dos Santos, J. F., Vilaça, P., & T. Amancio-Filho, S. (2018). Fundamentals of Force-Controlled Friction Riveting: Part II - Joint Global Mechanical Performance and Energy Efficiency. Materials, 11(12), . https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11122489