Friction stir welding of API X70 steel incorporating Ti-dioxide

Rasoul Pouriamanesh, Kamran Dehghani*, Rudolf Vallant

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In the present work, the microstructural evolution and hardness of HSLA X70 joined by friction stir welding were investigated. The FSW was applied to HSLA X70 with and without the addition of titanium dioxide (TiO2) powders. To evaluate the microstructural features and hardness of different weld zones, optical microscopy and Vickers microhardness measurements were applied. The results show that the distribution of TiO2 powders is strongly dependent on the applied friction stir processing, which in turn changed significantly the microstructure and hardness profile. In this regard, the optimum stirring action resulted in a homogeneous and fine dispersion of particles leading to the domination of an acicular ferrite phase with a hardness of 370 HV. On the other hand, the lower stirring action resulted in coarse particles as well as the development of the polygonal ferrite structure with a hardness of ∼185 HV.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)69-81
Number of pages13
JournalCanadian Metallurgical Quarterly
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jan 2019


  • acicular ferrite
  • Friction stir welding (FSW)
  • HSLA steel
  • microhardness
  • microstructure
  • titanium dioxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Metals and Alloys
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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