## Abstract

The industrial production of thick walled hydro formed steel parts is a process difficult to control. In particular the prevention of cracks in the production of these parts is very important. It is of utmost importance to have a virtual tool

to predict forming results. Standard methods for the simulation of hydro formed parts base upon processes using a shell element formulation and implement a forming limit curve (FLC) for crack prediction. But the forming limit curve is

limited to the case of linear strain paths. The initial FLC is no longer valid in the case of nonlinear strain paths. Because of the geometric specifications of the investigated parts – thick walls, compact dimensions, high strains – and the known limitations of the forming limit curve – which don´t accord to the hydro forming process – these standard simulation methods are not applicable for the present investigations. A new approach to simulate thick walled hydro formed parts is the use of a volume element formulation in combination with a more complex failure criterion, which gives information about the risk of ductile normal fracture and ductile shear fractures with nonlinear strain paths. The onset of necking must be predicted directly by the volume elements. The aim of this work is to implement the failure criteria in a hydroforming simulation and to compare the results of the simulation with real cracked test parts. The commercial FEM code PamStamp 2G is used as a solver and a comprehensive fracture model is applied. This fracture model distinguishes between two mechanisms responsible for ductile fracture. One is the void growth and coalescence (ductile normal fracture) and the other one is the shear failure model (ductile shear fracture).

to predict forming results. Standard methods for the simulation of hydro formed parts base upon processes using a shell element formulation and implement a forming limit curve (FLC) for crack prediction. But the forming limit curve is

limited to the case of linear strain paths. The initial FLC is no longer valid in the case of nonlinear strain paths. Because of the geometric specifications of the investigated parts – thick walls, compact dimensions, high strains – and the known limitations of the forming limit curve – which don´t accord to the hydro forming process – these standard simulation methods are not applicable for the present investigations. A new approach to simulate thick walled hydro formed parts is the use of a volume element formulation in combination with a more complex failure criterion, which gives information about the risk of ductile normal fracture and ductile shear fractures with nonlinear strain paths. The onset of necking must be predicted directly by the volume elements. The aim of this work is to implement the failure criteria in a hydroforming simulation and to compare the results of the simulation with real cracked test parts. The commercial FEM code PamStamp 2G is used as a solver and a comprehensive fracture model is applied. This fracture model distinguishes between two mechanisms responsible for ductile fracture. One is the void growth and coalescence (ductile normal fracture) and the other one is the shear failure model (ductile shear fracture).

Original language | English |
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Title of host publication | he 14th International ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming: ESAFORM 2011. AIP Conference Proceedings, Volume 1353. AIP Conference Proceedings |

Publisher | . |

Pages | 295-300 |

Number of pages | 300 |

Volume | Volume 1353 |

Edition | Issue 1 |

Publication status | Published - 2011 |

## Fields of Expertise

- Mobility & Production