Extensive analysis of an SOC stack for mobile application in reversible mode under various operating conditions

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Abstract

The reversible solid oxide cell (rSOC) is a key technology that is capable of generating electricity, heat, and valuable fuels in a highly efficient manner. By integrating an rSOC module and all of the necessary components into a compact unit, it is possible to realize an autonomous reversible system. In order to learn more about the durability and reliability of a ten-cell rSOC stack, originally developed for mobile applications, was operated in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes under realistic operating conditions. The stack was fed with gas mixtures of H2, H2O, CO2 and CO. The stack examined in the course of these experiments consists of large, planar, anode-supported cells (ASC). Compared to stacks with conventionally produced interconnects, the concept used for this stack was based on stamped metal sheet plates of CroFer22 APU, which means that they are lightweight and easy to assemble. The present study includes a detailed characterization of the stack's performance during reversible operation and evaluates its applicability for real operation. To this end, a comprehensive stack analysis including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), chronopotentiometry, a gas analysis, polarization curves, and temperature measurements. In consideration of system integrations, the stack was operated in galvanostatic mode under system-relevant, steady-state conditions: at a fuel utilization of 80% in fuel cell mode, and at a reactant utilization of 70% in electrolysis mode. The feasibility of this SOC stack's long-term operation has thus been proven for an operating time of >2000 h. Finally, degradation analyses of both the stack and the individual cells were performed, whereby the stack was observed to have a degradation rate of 3.7%/kh.
LanguageEnglish
Pages692-707
Number of pages16
JournalElectrochimica acta
Volume299
DOIs
StatusPublished - 10 Mar 2019

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Oxides
Electrolysis
Fuel cells
Degradation
Gas fuel analysis
Carbon Monoxide
Sheet metal
Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
Gas mixtures
Temperature measurement
Anodes
Durability
Electricity
Polarization
Experiments
Hot Temperature

Keywords

  • solid oxide cell (SOC)
  • Anode supported cell (ASC)
  • High temperature electrolysis (HTE)
  • Lightweight SOC stack

Fields of Expertise

  • Sustainable Systems

Cite this

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title = "Extensive analysis of an SOC stack for mobile application in reversible mode under various operating conditions",
abstract = "The reversible solid oxide cell (rSOC) is a key technology that is capable of generating electricity, heat, and valuable fuels in a highly efficient manner. By integrating an rSOC module and all of the necessary components into a compact unit, it is possible to realize an autonomous reversible system. In order to learn more about the durability and reliability of a ten-cell rSOC stack, originally developed for mobile applications, was operated in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes under realistic operating conditions. The stack was fed with gas mixtures of H2, H2O, CO2 and CO. The stack examined in the course of these experiments consists of large, planar, anode-supported cells (ASC). Compared to stacks with conventionally produced interconnects, the concept used for this stack was based on stamped metal sheet plates of CroFer22 APU, which means that they are lightweight and easy to assemble. The present study includes a detailed characterization of the stack's performance during reversible operation and evaluates its applicability for real operation. To this end, a comprehensive stack analysis including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), chronopotentiometry, a gas analysis, polarization curves, and temperature measurements. In consideration of system integrations, the stack was operated in galvanostatic mode under system-relevant, steady-state conditions: at a fuel utilization of 80{\%} in fuel cell mode, and at a reactant utilization of 70{\%} in electrolysis mode. The feasibility of this SOC stack's long-term operation has thus been proven for an operating time of >2000 h. Finally, degradation analyses of both the stack and the individual cells were performed, whereby the stack was observed to have a degradation rate of 3.7{\%}/kh.",
keywords = "solid oxide cell (SOC), Anode supported cell (ASC), High temperature electrolysis (HTE), Lightweight SOC stack",
author = "Michael Preininger and Bernhard St{\"o}ckl and Vanja Subotić and Christoph Hochenauer",
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AU - Preininger,Michael

AU - Stöckl,Bernhard

AU - Subotić,Vanja

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N2 - The reversible solid oxide cell (rSOC) is a key technology that is capable of generating electricity, heat, and valuable fuels in a highly efficient manner. By integrating an rSOC module and all of the necessary components into a compact unit, it is possible to realize an autonomous reversible system. In order to learn more about the durability and reliability of a ten-cell rSOC stack, originally developed for mobile applications, was operated in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes under realistic operating conditions. The stack was fed with gas mixtures of H2, H2O, CO2 and CO. The stack examined in the course of these experiments consists of large, planar, anode-supported cells (ASC). Compared to stacks with conventionally produced interconnects, the concept used for this stack was based on stamped metal sheet plates of CroFer22 APU, which means that they are lightweight and easy to assemble. The present study includes a detailed characterization of the stack's performance during reversible operation and evaluates its applicability for real operation. To this end, a comprehensive stack analysis including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), chronopotentiometry, a gas analysis, polarization curves, and temperature measurements. In consideration of system integrations, the stack was operated in galvanostatic mode under system-relevant, steady-state conditions: at a fuel utilization of 80% in fuel cell mode, and at a reactant utilization of 70% in electrolysis mode. The feasibility of this SOC stack's long-term operation has thus been proven for an operating time of >2000 h. Finally, degradation analyses of both the stack and the individual cells were performed, whereby the stack was observed to have a degradation rate of 3.7%/kh.

AB - The reversible solid oxide cell (rSOC) is a key technology that is capable of generating electricity, heat, and valuable fuels in a highly efficient manner. By integrating an rSOC module and all of the necessary components into a compact unit, it is possible to realize an autonomous reversible system. In order to learn more about the durability and reliability of a ten-cell rSOC stack, originally developed for mobile applications, was operated in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes under realistic operating conditions. The stack was fed with gas mixtures of H2, H2O, CO2 and CO. The stack examined in the course of these experiments consists of large, planar, anode-supported cells (ASC). Compared to stacks with conventionally produced interconnects, the concept used for this stack was based on stamped metal sheet plates of CroFer22 APU, which means that they are lightweight and easy to assemble. The present study includes a detailed characterization of the stack's performance during reversible operation and evaluates its applicability for real operation. To this end, a comprehensive stack analysis including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), chronopotentiometry, a gas analysis, polarization curves, and temperature measurements. In consideration of system integrations, the stack was operated in galvanostatic mode under system-relevant, steady-state conditions: at a fuel utilization of 80% in fuel cell mode, and at a reactant utilization of 70% in electrolysis mode. The feasibility of this SOC stack's long-term operation has thus been proven for an operating time of >2000 h. Finally, degradation analyses of both the stack and the individual cells were performed, whereby the stack was observed to have a degradation rate of 3.7%/kh.

KW - solid oxide cell (SOC)

KW - Anode supported cell (ASC)

KW - High temperature electrolysis (HTE)

KW - Lightweight SOC stack

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JO - Electrochimica acta

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