Evaluating Particulate Emissions from a Flexible Fuel Vehicle with Direct Injection when Operated on Ethanol and Iso-butanol Blends

George Karavalakis*, Daniel Short, Vincent Chen, Carlos Espinoza, Tyler Berte, Thomas Durbin, Akua Asa-Awuku, Heejung Jung, Leonidas Ntziachristos, Stavros Amanatidis, Alexander Bergmann

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

The relationship between ethanol and iso-butanol fuel concentrations and vehicle particulate matter emissions was investigated. This study utilized a gasoline direct injection (GDI) flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) with wall-guided fueling system tested with four fuels, including E10, E51, E83, and an iso-butanol blend at a proportion of 55% by volume. Emission measurements were conducted over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) driving cycle on a chassis dynamometer with an emphasis on the physical and chemical characterization of particulate matter (PM) emissions. The results indicated that the addition of higher ethanol blends and the iso-butanol blend resulted in large reductions in PM mass, soot, and total and solid particle number emissions. PM emissions for the baseline E10 fuel were characterized by a higher fraction of elemental carbon (EC), whereas the PM emissions for the higher ethanol blends were more organic carbon (OC) in nature. The higher ethanol blends and the iso-butanol blend showed lower concentrations of accumulation mode particles and size distributions shifted to smaller particle sizes compared to E10. In addition, the majority of trace elements and metals showed clear reductions with increasing alcohol content into gasoline.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSAE 2014 International Powertrains, Fuels and Lubricants Meeting, FFL 2014
PublisherSAE International
Volume2014-October
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 13 Oct 2014
Externally publishedYes
EventSAE 2014 International Powertrains, Fuels and Lubricants Meeting, FFL 2014 - Birmingham, United Kingdom
Duration: 20 Oct 201422 Oct 2014

Conference

ConferenceSAE 2014 International Powertrains, Fuels and Lubricants Meeting, FFL 2014
CountryUnited Kingdom
CityBirmingham
Period20/10/1422/10/14

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Pollution
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

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