Direct X-ray and electron-beam lithography of halogenated zeolitic imidazolate frameworks

Min Tu, Benzheng Xia, Dmitry E Kravchenko, Max Lutz Tietze, Alexander John Cruz, Ivo Stassen, Tom Hauffman, Joan Teyssandier, Steven De Feyter, Zheng Wang, Roland A Fischer, Benedetta Marmiroli, Heinz Amenitsch, Ana Torvisco Gomez, Miriam Velasquez Hernandez, Paolo Falcaro, Rob Ameloot*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) offer disruptive potential in micro- and optoelectronics because of the unique properties of these microporous materials. Nanoscale patterning is a fundamental step in the implementation of MOFs in miniaturized solid-state devices. Conventional MOF patterning methods suffer from low resolution and poorly defined pattern edges. Here, we demonstrate the resist-free, direct X-ray and electron-beam lithography of MOFs. This process avoids etching damage and contamination and leaves the porosity and crystallinity of the patterned MOFs intact. The resulting high-quality patterns have excellent sub-50-nm resolution, and approach the mesopore regime. The compatibility of X-ray and electron-beam lithography with existing micro- and nanofabrication processes will facilitate the integration of MOFs in miniaturized devices.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)93-99
Number of pages7
JournalNature Materials
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)


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