We show that the work function (Φ) of ZnO can be increased by up to 2.8 eV by depositing the molecular electron acceptor 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ). On metals, already much smaller Φ increases involve significant charge transfer to F4TCNQ. No indication of negatively charged F4TCNQ on ZnO is found by photoemission spectroscopy. This fundamental difference is explained by a simple electrostatic model that identifies the bulk doping and band bending in ZnO as key parameters. Varying Φ of the inorganic semiconductor enables tuning the energy-level alignment at ZnO/organic semiconductor interfaces.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics