Comparison of chemical bath-deposited ZnO films doped with Al, Ga and In

S. Edinger*, N. Bansal, M. Bauch, R. A. Wibowo, R. Hamid, G. Trimmel, T. Dimopoulos

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A comparative study is presented on chemical bath-deposited ZnO films, doped with the group-13 metals Al, Ga and In. The study reveals marked differences in dopant incorporation in the films, which increases in the order: In, Al and Ga. The presence of dopant in the solution induces significant modifications in the deposition rate, which varies between 110 and 40 nm min−1. All films are (002)-textured, whereas the lattice stress evolution with the dopant type and concentration suggests that Ga has the highest degree of substitutional incorporation in Zn sites. The average visible transmittance is higher than 80%, while the infrared reflectivity depends on the free carrier density in the films, which is the lowest for undoped ZnO and increases in the order: In-, Al- and Ga-doped ZnO. Optical measurements also yield an inverse correlation between carrier density and mobility. Doping enlarges the bandgap, as well as the Urbach energy that is related to the films’ disorder. The lowest electrical resistivity, measured by four-point probe, is 1.7 × 10−2 Ω cm and is obtained for In-doped films after being exposed to ultraviolet light. Ga-doped films are found to exhibit the highest stability of the conductivity upon ultraviolet exposure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9410-9423
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Materials Science
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering

Fields of Expertise

  • Advanced Materials Science


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