Characterisation of the opening behavior of multilayer films with cohesive failure mechanism by in situ peel tests in the ESEM

M. Heuser*, Armin Zankel, Claudia Mayrhofer, K. Reincke, B. Langer, W. Grellmann

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


In this work, peel tests inside the chamber of an ESEM (in situ peel tests) are describedwith heat-sealed test specimens of packaging systems made of multilayer films thatsimulate different flexible packaging types, according to the packaging line used. Thein situ peel tests provided evidence to describe the influence of three different mainaspects of the packaging process in relation to the opening behavior of the sealingpackages. The investigated aspects are the peel angle, the alignment angle betweenthe orientation of the multilayer films and the seal, and the bulge formation as a consequenceof inadequate sealing parameters. In situ peel tests enabled the differentiationbetween peel angle and local (micro) peel angle, which results from the overall stiffnessof the multilayer structure film. Alignment angles of 90 and 45 were found to producesimilar opening forces. Images showing the formation of various new local micro fissures on new planes during the in situ peel test explained how the opening force canbe dramatically increased during the tearing of two sealed multilayer films.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)147-172
Number of pages26
JournalJournal of Plastic Film & Sheeting
Issue number1
Early online date18 Jun 2021
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022


  • easy-to-open
  • flexible packaging
  • heat-sealing
  • In situ peel test
  • multilayer films
  • opening force
  • peelable film
  • seal strength

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Polymers and Plastics

Fields of Expertise

  • Advanced Materials Science

Treatment code (Nähere Zuordnung)

  • Basic - Fundamental (Grundlagenforschung)


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