B-site vacancy induced Raman scattering in BaTiO3-based ferroelectric ceramics

Vignaswaran K. Veerapandiyan*, Saman Khosravi H, Giovanna Canu, Antonio Feteira, Vincenzo Buscaglia, Klaus Reichmann, Marco Deluca

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Defects, in particular vacancies, play a crucial role in substituted perovskite systems, influencing the structural features that underpin ferroelectricity. B-site vacancies introduce cation disorder in the perovskite lattice and are in fact one of the main driving forces for relaxor behaviour in barium titanate (BaTiO3, BT) based ferroelectrics. In this work, material systems are carefully selected to qualitatively study the change in B-site vacancy concentration for heterovalent substituted BT-based ferroelectric polycrystals. Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate those systems, and B-site vacancy specific Raman modes were identified unambiguously by comparison with charge-compensated BT, where B-site vacancies are absent. This study validates the hypothesis that vacancies induce Raman scattering because of symmetry breaking in the BT lattice, establishing this method as a vital tool to study substitutional defects in ceramic materials.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4684-4688
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of the European Ceramic Society
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2020


  • Charge-compensated ceramics
  • Heterovalent substitution
  • Lead-free ferroelectrics
  • Raman spectroscopy
  • Vacancies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Materials Chemistry


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