An empirical survey on co-simulation: Promising standards, challenges and research needs

G. Schweiger, C. Gomes*, G. Engel, I. Hafner, J. Schoeggl, A. Posch, T. Nouidui

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Co-simulation is a promising approach for the modelling and simulation of complex systems, that makes use of mature simulation tools in the respective domains. It has been applied in various different domains, oftentimes without a comprehensive study of the impact to the simulation results. As a consequence, over the recent years, researchers have set out to understand the essential challenges arising from the application of this technique. This paper complements the existing surveys in that the social and empirical aspects were addressed. More than 50 experts participated in a two-stage Delphi study to determine current challenges, research needs and promising standards and tools. Furthermore, an analysis of the strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats of co-simulation utilizing the analytic hierarchy process resulting in a SWOT-AHP analysis is presented. The empirical results of this study show that experts consider the FMI standard to be the most promising standard for continuous time, discrete event and hybrid co-simulation. The results of the SWOT-AHP analysis indicate that factors related to strengths and opportunities predominate.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)148-163
Number of pages16
JournalSimulation modelling practice and theory
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2019


  • Co-simulation
  • Delphi method
  • Empirical survey
  • Modelling
  • Simulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Modelling and Simulation
  • Hardware and Architecture


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