Herein, we present a small and versatile optode system with integrated battery and logger for monitoring of O2, pH, and pCO2 in seawater. Three sensing materials designed for seawater measurements are optimized with respect to dynamic measurement range and long-term stability. The spectral properties of the sensing materials were tailored to be compatible with a commercially available laboratory oxygen logger that was fitted into a pressure housing. Interchangeable sensor caps with appropriate “sensing chemistry” are conveniently attached to the end of the optical fiber. This approach allows using the same instrument for multiple analytes, which offers great flexibility and minimizes hardware costs. Applications of the new optode system were demonstrated by recording depth profiles for the three parameters during a research cruise in the Baltic Sea and by measuring surface water transects of pH. The optode was furthermore used to monitor the concentration of dissolved oxygen in a seagrass meadow in the Limfjord, Denmark, and sensor packages consisting of pO2, pH, and pCO2 were deployed in the harbors of Kiel, Germany, and Southampton, England, for 6 d. The measurements revealed that the system can resolve typical patterns in seawater chemistry related to spatial heterogeneities as well as temporal changes caused by biological and tidal activity.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ocean Engineering