A Practical and Highly Optimized Convolutional Neural Network for Classifying Traffic Signs in Real-Time

Hamed Habibi Aghdam*, Elnaz Jahani Heravi, Domenec Puig

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Classifying traffic signs is an indispensable part of Advanced Driver Assistant Systems. This strictly requires that the traffic sign classification model accurately classifies the images and consumes as few CPU cycles as possible to immediately release the CPU for other tasks. In this paper, we first propose a new ConvNet architecture. Then, we propose a new method for creating an optimal ensemble of ConvNets with highest possible accuracy and lowest number of ConvNets. Our experiments show that the ensemble of our proposed ConvNets (the ensemble is also constructed using our method) reduces the number of arithmetic operations 88 and 73% compared with two state-of-art ensemble of ConvNets. In addition, our ensemble is 0.1% more accurate than one of the state-of-art ensembles and it is only 0.04% less accurate than the other state-of-art ensemble when tested on the same dataset. Moreover, ensemble of our compact ConvNets reduces the number of the multiplications 95 and 88%, yet, the classification accuracy drops only 0.2 and 0.4% compared with these two ensembles. Besides, we also evaluate the cross-dataset performance of our ConvNet and analyze its transferability power in different layers. We show that our network is easily scalable to new datasets with much more number of traffic sign classes and it only needs to fine-tune the weights starting from the last convolution layer. We also assess our ConvNet through different visualization techniques. Besides, we propose a new method for finding the minimum additive noise which causes the network to incorrectly classify the image by minimum difference compared with the highest score in the loss vector. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)246-269
JournalInternational Journal of Computer Vision
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2017
Externally publishedYes

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