Supports ahead of the face and/or ground improvements are frequently used in shallow tunneling. The aim of those methods is to improve the excavation behavior and the deformation behavior of the surrounding ground during the excavation, and increase the safety. Over the last several years new developments for installing pipe roofs led to a more frequent use in shallow tunnels, not limiting the method to special locations. Presently there exist neither criteria for application nor design guidelines. Based on data of in situ measurements, laboratory tests, and numerical analyses a design approach for pipe roof support for tunneling will be developed.
|Effective start/end date||1/01/02 → …|