The tremendous pervasiveness of modern technologies, such as portable consumer electronic products or electric vehicles, which are anticipated to become the key method of transportation in the 21st Century, is generating a constant need for advanced, clean electrochemical energy storage systems. In the medium run, lithium-based batteries are rapidly becoming the technology of choice for this purpose; cf. also the increasing research activities directed to-wards Li-air batteries. In the Christian Doppler (CD) lab at the TU Graz the target-oriented lithium-ion battery research focuses on both (i) the optimization and development of new concepts and materials such as powerful solid electrolytes to enhance life cycle and safety, as well as (ii) the fundamental study of solid-state electrochemical processes and charge carrier transport influencing power rate capabilities and electrochemical stability. Therefore, identifying (structural) degradation phenomena due to both cycling and calendric ageing, and under-standing the underlying mechanisms belong to the primary topics of the CD lab. Key methods that will be applied are lithium NMR and impedance spectroscopy to shed light on ion transport properties from both a macroscopic and microscopic point of view. Moreover, the lab particularly intends to advance primary and secondary high-capacity micro-batteries by taking advantage of, e.g., Si-based anodes.