The formation of a stable triacylgermenolate 2 as a decisive intermediate was achieved by using three pathways. The first two methods involve the reaction of KOtBu or alternatively potassium with tetraacylgermane 1 yielding 2 via one electron transfer. The mechanism involves the formation of radical anions (shown by EPR). This reaction is highly efficient and selective. The third method is a classical salt metathesis reaction toward 2 in nearly quantitative yield. The formation of 2 was confirmed by NMR spectroscopy, UV-vis measurements, and X-ray crystallography. Germenolate 2 serves as a starting point for a wide variety of organo-germanium compounds. We demonstrate the potential of this intermediate by introducing new types of Ge-based photoinitiators 4b-4f. The UV-vis absorption spectra of 4b-4f show considerably increased band intensities due to the presence of eight or more chromophores. Moreover, compounds 4d-4f show absorption tailing up to 525 nm. The performance of these photoinitiators is demonstrated by spectroscopy (time-resolved EPR, laser flash photolysis (LFP), photobleaching (UV-vis)) and photopolymerization experiments (photo-DSC measurements).
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anorganische Chemie
- Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie