Abstract

Models play an essential role in the design process of cyber-physical systems. They form the basis for simulation and analysis and help in identifying design problems as early as possible. However, the construction of models that comprise physical and digital behavior is challenging. Therefore, there is considerable interest in learning such hybrid behavior by means of machine learning which requires sufficient and representative training data covering the behavior of the physical system adequately. In this work, we exploit a combination of automata learning and model-based testing to generate sufficient training data fully automatically.

Experimental results on a platooning scenario show that recurrent neural networks learned with this data achieved significantly better results compared to models learned from randomly generated data. In particular, the classification error for crash detection is reduced by a factor of five and a similar F1-score is obtained with up to three orders of magnitude fewer training samples.

Originalspracheenglisch
TitelTesting Software and Systems
Untertitel31st IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference, ICTSS 2019, Paris, France, October 15–17, 2019, Proceedings
Redakteure/-innenChristophe Gaston, Nikolai Kosmatov, Pascale Le Gall
ErscheinungsortCham
Herausgeber (Verlag)Springer International Publishing AG
Seiten3-21
Seitenumfang19
ISBN (Print)978-3-030-31280-0
DOIs
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - 2019
VeranstaltungIFIP-ICTSS 2019: 31st IFIP International Conference on Testing Software and Systems - Paris, Frankreich
Dauer: 15 Okt 201917 Okt 2019

Publikationsreihe

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science
Band11812

Konferenz

KonferenzIFIP-ICTSS 2019
LandFrankreich
OrtParis
Zeitraum15/10/1917/10/19

Fingerprint

Hybrid systems
Learning systems
Testing
Recurrent neural networks

Schlagwörter

    Dies zitieren

    Aichernig, B. K., Bloem, R., Ebrahimi, M., Horn, M., Pernkopf, F., Roth, W., ... Tranninger, M. (2019). Learning a Behavior Model of Hybrid Systems Through Combining Model-Based Testing and Machine Learning. in C. Gaston, N. Kosmatov, & P. Le Gall (Hrsg.), Testing Software and Systems: 31st IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference, ICTSS 2019, Paris, France, October 15–17, 2019, Proceedings (S. 3-21). (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Band 11812). Cham: Springer International Publishing AG . https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-31280-0_1

    Learning a Behavior Model of Hybrid Systems Through Combining Model-Based Testing and Machine Learning. / Aichernig, Bernhard K.; Bloem, Roderick; Ebrahimi, Masoud; Horn, Martin; Pernkopf, Franz; Roth, Wolfgang; Rupp, Astrid; Tappler, Martin; Tranninger, Markus.

    Testing Software and Systems: 31st IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference, ICTSS 2019, Paris, France, October 15–17, 2019, Proceedings. Hrsg. / Christophe Gaston; Nikolai Kosmatov; Pascale Le Gall. Cham : Springer International Publishing AG , 2019. S. 3-21 (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Band 11812).

    Publikation: Beitrag in Buch/Bericht/KonferenzbandBeitrag in einem KonferenzbandForschungBegutachtung

    Aichernig, BK, Bloem, R, Ebrahimi, M, Horn, M, Pernkopf, F, Roth, W, Rupp, A, Tappler, M & Tranninger, M 2019, Learning a Behavior Model of Hybrid Systems Through Combining Model-Based Testing and Machine Learning. in C Gaston, N Kosmatov & P Le Gall (Hrsg.), Testing Software and Systems: 31st IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference, ICTSS 2019, Paris, France, October 15–17, 2019, Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Bd. 11812, Springer International Publishing AG , Cham, S. 3-21, Paris, Frankreich, 15/10/19. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-31280-0_1
    Aichernig BK, Bloem R, Ebrahimi M, Horn M, Pernkopf F, Roth W et al. Learning a Behavior Model of Hybrid Systems Through Combining Model-Based Testing and Machine Learning. in Gaston C, Kosmatov N, Le Gall P, Hrsg., Testing Software and Systems: 31st IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference, ICTSS 2019, Paris, France, October 15–17, 2019, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing AG . 2019. S. 3-21. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-31280-0_1
    Aichernig, Bernhard K. ; Bloem, Roderick ; Ebrahimi, Masoud ; Horn, Martin ; Pernkopf, Franz ; Roth, Wolfgang ; Rupp, Astrid ; Tappler, Martin ; Tranninger, Markus. / Learning a Behavior Model of Hybrid Systems Through Combining Model-Based Testing and Machine Learning. Testing Software and Systems: 31st IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference, ICTSS 2019, Paris, France, October 15–17, 2019, Proceedings. Hrsg. / Christophe Gaston ; Nikolai Kosmatov ; Pascale Le Gall. Cham : Springer International Publishing AG , 2019. S. 3-21 (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).
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    AU - Pernkopf, Franz

    AU - Roth, Wolfgang

    AU - Rupp, Astrid

    AU - Tappler, Martin

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    AB - Models play an essential role in the design process of cyber-physical systems. They form the basis for simulation and analysis and help in identifying design problems as early as possible. However, the construction of models that comprise physical and digital behavior is challenging. Therefore, there is considerable interest in learning such hybrid behavior by means of machine learning which requires sufficient and representative training data covering the behavior of the physical system adequately. In this work, we exploit a combination of automata learning and model-based testing to generate sufficient training data fully automatically.Experimental results on a platooning scenario show that recurrent neural networks learned with this data achieved significantly better results compared to models learned from randomly generated data. In particular, the classification error for crash detection is reduced by a factor of five and a similar F1-score is obtained with up to three orders of magnitude fewer training samples.

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    KW - Automata learning

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    KW - Autonomous vehicle

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