While many plasmonic phenomena have been realized by using standard nanoscale synthesis in a single 2-dimensional plane, enhanced functionality should be possible by extending into the third dimension. Several nanoscale synthesis approaches have been explored to achieve 3-dimensional (3d) geometries; however, a robust strategy for synthesizing complex 3d plasmonic architectures is lacking. In this study, we utilize a hybrid of direct-write 3d nanoprinting and thin film deposition to fabricate 3d plasmonic structures. Focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) is used to deposit nonplasmonic 3d scaffolds, which are subsequently isolated with a conformal SiO2 layer and coated with a gold layer to create functional 3d plasmonic nanostructures. A variety of rod antennae, split-ring nanoresonators, and ring resonators are synthesized, and low-loss electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) is utilized to characterize their full plasmonic spectra with nanoscale resolution. Complementary EELS simulations are performed to interpret the spectra and elucidate the associated electric and magnetic field distributions of the infrared and near optical modes. This work demonstrates the flexibility that FEBID scaffolds offer for the advancement of 3d plasmonic devices and future advanced optical and magnetic metamaterials.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- !!Materials Science(all)