This paper focusses on the effect of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and a solution annealing post treatment on the fatigue strength of selectively laser melted (SLM) AlSi10Mg structures. The aim of this work is to assess the effect of the unprocessed (as-built) surface and residual stresses, regarding the fatigue behaviour for each condition. The surface roughness of unprocessed specimens is evaluated based on digital light optical microscopy and subsequent three-dimensional image post processing. To holistically characterize contributing factors to the fatigue strength, the axial surface residual stress of all specimens with unprocessed surfaces is measured using X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, the in-depth residual stress distribution of selected samples is analyzed. The fatigue strength is evaluated by tension-compression high-cycle fatigue tests under a load stress ratio of R = −1. For the machined specimens, intrinsic defects like pores or intermetallic phases are identified as the failure origin. Regarding the unprocessed test series, surface features cause the failures that correspond to significantly reduced cyclic material properties of approximately −60% referring to machined ones. There are beneficial effects on the surface roughness and residual stresses evoked due to the post treatments. Considering the aforementioned influencing factors, this study provides a fatigue assessment of the mentioned conditions of the investigated Al-material.