Welded structures made of high-strength steel offer benefits in fatigue strength for finite life applications. The high-cycle fatigue limit, however, depends mostly on the geometry, and the metallurgy of the notch is of little account. Therefore, an optimised weld process is required to achieve an improvement in the fatigue strength. This paper contributes to the field of fatigue behaviour of thin-walled, high-strength steel butt joints, with regard to an optimisation of the gas metal arc weld process. An existing methodology was extended to manufacture welded specimens with minimised production scatter. The majority of the butt joint samples were dynamically tested, with the root surface ground flush to plate, to study the effect of the weld process on fatigue. The investigated specimen were carefully analysed by metallographic studies along with hardness, distortion, and weld toe topography measurements. This facilitated in finding a relation between experimental fatigue life and the weld parameters. The nominal stress approach, including a benign, nonconservative thinness correction, and the recommended notch stress concept, were applied to assess the fatigue behaviour of the thin-walled, high-strength steel butt joints. The experimental results showed that in case of high-quality welds with negligable geometric notch factor, a small, but distinct influence of the filler metal on fatigue is observable. The highest fatigue strength for the investigated butt joint design was obtained with a high-strength metal-cored wire filler in combination with a three-component shielding gas.