A pressing task for future energy systems is the design and operation of systems that integrate large shares of renewable energy while improving overall system efficiency. Because buildings consume about 32% of the total global final energy use, they are of vital importance. In recent years, technical and socio-economic studies, as well as hands-on experience, have concluded that the integration and participation of consumer are crucial for smart energy systems. To reach challenging climate goals, individual consumer, social environment, physical environment, digital realities and economical conditions must be considered and integrated in successful solutions and business models. However, a holistic discussion of all these elements is scarce. This paper presents a comprehensive review of necessary steps and obstacles during the development and implementation of user centric business models, including a detailed discussion of required data and computational methods as well as psychological aspects of consumer participation. In addition, we aim to identify current challenges and future research needs.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- !!Civil and Structural Engineering
- !!Building and Construction
- !!Mechanical Engineering
- !!Electrical and Electronic Engineering