Visual processing in primates and other species serves as a primary source for new ideas and algorithms in cognitive vision. This subproject will allow the JRP to integrate into its work some of the most exciting new experimental data about primate vision, especially new data regarding the interaction of lower and higher visual areas in cortex and the role of learning in various cognitive vision tasks. Computer models will be designed that integrate these new experimental data into functional models, and thereby provide new insight into the interaction of bottom-up and top-down processing in primate vision, as well as new insight into the role of learning principles in primate vision. In this way the engineering-oriented research in this JRP does not have to rely on secondary (and often somewhat dated) reports about experimental findings on cognitive vision in biological organisms, but can go directly to the source. In addition the close - and quite unique - interaction between researchers in computational neuroscience and machine vision within this JRP will help researchers from computational neuroscience to gain a better understanding of the computational problems that cognitive vision has to solve, and will help to sharpen the experimental questions addressed in research on primate vision.